Although the interest in and applications of taxonomies has grown in recent years, there are still not many books on the subject. Most of the information on taxonomies currently resides in online discussion group archives, blogs, wikis, conference presentations, white papers and reports (the latter at quite a premium price), but not much yet in easily accessible books. A search on Amazon.com on “taxonomies” yields numerous books of specific taxonomies, but very few on the art of creating taxonomies in general. Even the “books” page on the Taxonomy Community of Practice Wikispace lists mostly books on information architecture, a classic book on classification theory, chapters of books on broader topics, and high-priced research reports. There is just one book listed with a focus on taxonomies: Organising Knowledge: Taxonomies, Knowledge and Organisational Effectiveness by Patrick Lambe (Oxford, England: Chandos Publishing, 2007)
Indeed, as its title and subtitle suggest, taxonomies are presented within a broader view of how knowledge is organized. The book is neither a simple “how to” book, nor a scholarly treatment of the subject, but in fact combines both: practical advice on how to create taxonomies along with thoroughness in covering the field of knowledge organization and analysis of various ideas and previous literature on the subject, with many footnotes and a lengthy bibliography.
The author, Patrick Lambe, is a Singapore-based consultant in the field of knowledge management who can base his ideas on his own business experience. Yet Lambe also has the academic credentials of an information scientist, a Master’s degree in Information Studies and Librarianship and experience teaching as an adjunct professor. Thus, he aptly bridges both sides of taxonomies, the traditional library science side and the newer corporate knowledge management side, although it is the latter that is the subject of this book. What I appreciate in this book is that Lambe writes based on both his research and his experience, and based on these he has developed a number of his own ideas.
While common definitions of taxonomies often limit them to hierarchies, Lambe prefers a broader definition. The forms of taxonomies that Lambe presents, along with a detailed explanation for each, are: lists, trees, hierarchies, polyhierarchies, matrices, facets, and system maps. Stretching the definition and boundaries of what taxonomies are and can do is a central theme of Organising Knowledge. Lambe states: “Taken together, it becomes clear that taxonomy work holds a wider range of application and use than simply as a tool of information retrieval.” (p. 95) .
Organising Knowledge presents a number of real world examples, scenarios, and case studies of the application of taxonomies in their broadest sense. These include implementations by the U.S. Department of Homeland Security, Unilever, and Club Med. These examples illustrate the wide range of uses for taxonomies. Among business activities, Lambe says that taxonomies can support the areas of risk recognition and response, cost control, customer and market management, and innovation.
Lambe does not simply describe taxonomies and their use. In this in-depth book he discusses their varied roles, how they are understood, and trends in their implementation. He describes how different kinds of taxonomies can either (1) structure and organize (both things and processes), (2) establish common ground, (3) span boundaries between groups, (4) help in sense-making, or (5) aid in the discovery of risk and opportunity.
Several later chapters turn to the practical steps of preparing, designing, and implementing a taxonomy project. Lambe breaks out the process into ten steps, the first six of which are all still part of the preparation stage. Among the topics presented in the preparation phase are taking technology into consideration and communicating well with the taxonomy sponsor and stakeholders. While it is appreciated that technology/computer systems are mentioned, I would have liked to learn more about this. It becomes quite evident that different situations require different approaches and different kinds of taxonomies, the different kinds of taxonomies that Lambe describes earlier in the book. My only point of disagreement here is the continual distinction between tree taxonomies and faceted taxonomies, since taxonomies often exhibit both characteristics at the same time.
The book is well written and relatively easy to follow, but it is not a “light” read. It has a number of helpful tables and diagrams. Particularly useful is the table (two and half pages long) comparing the uses and issues for each of the seven forms of taxonomies: lists, trees, hierarchies, polyhierarchies, matrices, facets, and system maps.
I highly recommend this book of great breadth and depth to anyone who works on taxonomies or is interested in working on taxonomies. The intended audience of the book is indeed limited to knowledge management and taxonomy professionals. Even those with considerable experience working in taxonomies will find this book informative and enlightening.
- Heather Hedden
This review is based on a longer book review written by Heather Hedden and published in Key Words, the Bulletin of the American Society for Indexing, Vol. 15, No. 4, October-December 2007, pp. 130-132.